Solar PV systems converts the energy carried by sunrays into electrical energy that can be utilized in our everyday consumptions.
A PV system generally consists from solar panels containing compact silicon cells, which is considered the most suitable semiconductor in PV applications.
When sunlight touches these cells, the carried photons energize the outer electrons from silicon atoms, thus a direct current is produced.
There are two types of PV systems:
1. On-Grid Systems:
The working principle of an On-Grid PV system is based on the net metering system, by calculating the imported and exported electricity from and to the electricity grid.
After the generation of direct current from the solar panels, it should be converted into alternative current so that the generated energy can be utilized in our home applications, therefore an electric device called the inverter is used to convert the direct current into alternative current, with a suitable voltage of 230 volts here in Jordan, followed by feeding the establishments.
Since that the system only generates electricity during the day, then some portion of the electricity will be exported to the electricity grid. During the night, the PV system will not generate energy, so the exported portion of electricity will be imported at night, and the net amount of the imported and exported energy can be measured easily.
2. Off-Grid Systems:
The working principle of the off-grid systems is based on storing electrical energy in batteries to be utilized later.
After the generation of direct current from the solar panels, it goes through a charge controller that controls the voltage into suitable limits, and protects the battery from overcharging and undercharging. Afterwards, the energy is stored in the battery while another portion of the current goes through an inverter (if there was any consumption during the day) to be converted into an alternative current that can be utilized in home devices.